Bach probably composed the cantata DU WAHRER GOTT UND DAVIDS SOHN (BWV 23) in Köthen between 1717 and 1723, but it was revised to be included as Bach’s second test piece (with “Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe”, BWV 22) for the position of Thomaskantor in Leipzig. The work was performed there on 7 February 1723 (after the sermon), and performed again on 20 February 1724.
The chorale was probably not part of the Köthen cantata, but is a surviving part of an otherwise lost passion written by Bach in Weimar. One can understand why Bach wanted to perform this impressive piece during his audition !
The chorale also concluded his 1725 revision of the St. John Passion.
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